The future of work in Europe (2023)

Discussion Paper (PDF-1MB)

Discussions of the labor outlook in Europe are understandably overshadowed by the impact of the novel coronavirus crisis. A discussion paper by the McKinsey Global Institute, The future of work in Europe (PDF–1MB) takes a longer-term view of the situation, to 2030.

Through a detailed analysis of 1,095 local labor markets across Europe, including 285 metropolitan areas, it examines profound trends that have been playing out on the continent in recent years and will continue to do so in the future. These include the growth of automation adoption, the increasing geographic concentration of employment, the shrinkage of labor supply, and the shifting mix of sectors and occupations. Some of these trends may be accelerated by the pandemic; our research suggests that a substantial number of the occupations that are likely to be displaced by automation in the longer term are also at risk from the coronavirus crisis in the short term. We also find that the effect of automation on the balance of jobs in Europe may not be as significant as is often believed.

  1. Local labor markets across Europe before the pandemic experienced a decade of growth and divergence
  2. European jobs at risk from COVID-19 overlap with jobs vulnerable to automation
  3. As Europe’s labor force shrinks, automation will affect occupations and demographic groups unevenly
  4. The sector and occupational mix in Europe will continue to evolve
  5. Job growth could become even more geographically concentrated in the decade to come
  6. The choices European leaders make today will determine how the future of work unfolds

Total employment in the 27 European Union countries plus Switzerland and the United Kingdom rose by almost 10 percent between 2003 and 2018 to record highs. Our analysis of Europe’s regional labor markets suggests that the future of work has already begun unfolding. First, the occupational mix shifted. In all regions, the most highly skilled individuals enjoyed the strongest job growth over the last decade, while middle-skill workers had fewer opportunities. COVID-19 and increased automation adoption triggered by the pandemic may accelerate this trend. Second, employment growth has been concentrated in a handful of regions. Third, labor mobility before the crisis rose as the geography of employment shifted. In contrast to the United States, labor mobility in the EU has been rising as workers in the lower-income regions migrate to the dynamic cities to fill jobs.

To understand the nuanced local dynamics at work and the likely impact of automation in the coming decade, we used a mathematical clustering technique to group 1,095 local labor markets across Europe into 13 clusters(Exhibit 1). These clusters fit into three sets: dynamic growth hubs, stable economies, and shrinking regions.

The future of work in Europe (1)

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(Video) Explore the future of work in Europe

  • Dynamic growth hubs are home to 20 percent of Europeans. This category includes two clusters with the highest GDP per capita in Europe and strong innovation capabilities. They are the megacities of London and Paris, with more than 10 million people apiece, and a young workforce with high educational attainment, and 46 superstar hubs, which have an array of high-growth industries and have been among the fastest-growing regions in Europe. They include Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Madrid, and Munich.
  • Stable economies are home to 50 percent of Europeans. These clusters had above-average GDP per capita and attracted new residents. They include 102 service-based economies such as Budapest, Lyon, Manchester, and Riga, which have a high share of employment in nontechnical services such as wholesale and retail trade; 78 high-tech manufacturing centers, more than 70 percent of which are in Germany, including Stuttgart and Wolfsburg, which focus on manufacturing and produce a large number of high-tech patent applications; 64 diversified metros including Bologna, Freiburg, Plymouth, and Katowice, with a mix of industry and service employment; 267 diversified non-metro areas including East Kent, Korinthia, and Austria’s Mittelburgenland; and finally, 98 tourism havens, including Portugal’s Algarve region, Cornwall, and Mallorca. All of these areas have been hit by the travel restrictions imposed to stem the spread of COVID-19.
  • Shrinking regions are home to 30 percent of Europeans. The working-age population in these clusters is shrinking because of outmigration, aging, or both. Three of these regional clusters are mainly in Eastern Europe: 72 industrial bases focusing on basic manufacturing; 85 educated and emigrating areas; and 58 agriculture-based regions. Other clusters in this grouping are 81 public sectorled regions, which have a high share of employment in the public sector, healthcare, and education; 35 trailing-opportunity regions, including Andalusia and Naples, which were facing high unemployment, negative net migration, and low business dynamism; and 107 aging-population regions including Dordogne, West Cumbria, and Zwickau, which have educated workforces but also high old-age dependency ratios.

Automation and other trends have already caused occupational and skill shifts across all local labor markets

Employment in Europe has grown in knowledge-intensive sectors such as telecommunications, financial services, real estate, and education, while it has been declining in manufacturing and agriculture. Job growth before the pandemic favored workers with the highest skill levels (such as legal and health professionals) across all three sets of local economy clusters. Likewise, job growth was also positive for occupations at the low end of the skills continuum, such as cashiers and sanitation workers. However, growth in lower middle-skill occupations (such as bank tellers) stagnated across all regional labor markets.

While new jobs were added, real wage growth stagnated for many Europeans. Between 2000 and 2018, average real wages grew by only 0.9 percent per year across Europe. The nature of work has been changing, too. Part-time work rose substantially in 22 of the 29 European countries. Until the COVID-19 crisis, independent work—including freelancers, workers for temporary staffing agencies, and gig economy workers—may have contributed 20 to 30 percent of all jobs.

Job growth since 2007 has been highly concentrated in 48 dynamic regions

Job growth has been highly concentrated in the 48 cities that constitute the dynamic growth hubs. These were home to 20 percent of the 2018 EU population and 21 percent of EU employment in 2018. Since 2007, they have generated a disproportionate 43 percent of the EU’s GDP growth, 35 percent of net job growth, and 40 percent of population growth, mainly by attracting workers from other regional clusters (Exhibit 2).

The future of work in Europe (2)

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By contrast, stable economies were home to roughly half of the EU population (just over 250 million people) and EU employment in 2018 and accounted for a proportionate 53 percent share of EU job growth between 2007 and 2018. Shrinking regions, home to 30 percent of Europe’s population and 27 percent of EU employment in 2018, created only 12 percent of new jobs.

Behind the differences in employment outcomes are local differences in innovation capabilities, business dynamism, and available workforce skills. The 48 megacities and superstar hubs produce 55 percent of EU high-tech patents, versus 39 percent for stable economies and just 6 percent for shrinking regions. They account for 73 percent of startups, compared with 25 percent for stable economies and 2 percent in shrinking regions. Twenty-nine of these cities are home to almost 80 percent of the 126 European companies in the Fortune Global 500.

Moreover, the 48 growth hubs are home to about 83 percent of STEM graduates, and 40 percent of the resident population has tertiary education; this compares to less than 25 percent in some clusters within the shrinking regions category.

Labor mobility rose as talent moved to the jobs

As the geography of employment shifted across Europe, people looking for work moved. Most mobility has been domestic, but mobility across borders increased, by more than 50 percent, from 0.4 percent of the total population in 2003 to 0.6 percent in 2017. The number of working-age Europeans who live and work in another European country doubled from 2003 to 2018, from fewer than eight million (2.3 percent of the total working-age population) to 16 million (4.8 percent). Superstar hubs were the main magnets for new arrivals from 2011 to 2018, adding about two million people.

As the economy cautiously reopens after the shutdown, we have estimated that up to 59 millionEuropean jobs, or 26 percent of the total, are at risk in the short term through reductions in hours or pay, temporary furloughs, or permanent layoffs. The impact will be unevenly distributed, with significant differences among sectors and occupations and, as a consequence, among demographic groups and local labor markets.

Three occupational groups account for about half of all jobs at risk in Europe: customer service and sales, food services, and building occupations. The jobs most at risk from pandemic job losses overlap to some extent with those most vulnerable to displacement through automation. Around 24 million jobs, almost 50 percent of the number of jobs displaced through automation, are at risk of displacement though both COVID-19 and automation (Exhibit 3).

The future of work in Europe (3)
(Video) Automation and Jobs in Europe: How Workers View the Future of Work

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The overlap varies between sectors. For example, almost 70 percent of jobs that could be displaced due to automation in the wholesale and retail sectors are also at risk due to COVID-19 (Exhibit 4). A similar overlap may hold true of demographic groups most at risk, especially with respect to educational attainment. About 80 percent of jobs at risk (46 million) are held by people who do not have a tertiary degree, according to our estimates; overall, employees without a tertiary qualification are almost twice as likely as those with a university degree to have jobs at risk.

The future of work in Europe (4)

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The employment impact of COVID-19 may hasten the workforce transitions to new jobs with different skills for many. The crisis could also accelerate existing inequalities within European countries, between better-educated and less well educated workers and regions, as well as among young people.

In the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, unemployment rose sharply in Europe and only started to recover five years later, after a double-dip recession. Employment grew strongly in subsequent years until the 2020 health crisis. Assuming a similar long-term recovery after the pandemic, one key aspect of the employment story we find in our research relates to the supply of labor rather than demand for it among firms. While automation adoption will grow over the next decade, a shrinking labor force on the continent means that, by 2030, finding sufficient workers with the required skills to fill the jobs that exist and are being created in Europe may be challenging.

Europe’s declining labor force poses a potential challenge to employers over the next decade

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Prior research by MGI estimated that about half of all work activities globally have the technical potential to be automated by adapting currently demonstrated technologies, with considerable differences by country. However, the pace and extent of automation will depend on the business case for adoption, wage levels, regulatory and consumer acceptance, technical capabilities, and other factors.

We ran multiple scenarios regarding the pace of automation in Europe prior to the pandemic. Under the midpoint scenario, about 22 percent of workforce activities across the EU (equivalent to 53 million jobs) could be automated by 2030—although this could be higher if the pandemic accelerates the pace of automation adoption. We assume that by 2030, the coronavirus crisis will be behind us and new jobs created would fully or partially compensate for this automation-related job loss. Even if there is a net decline in jobs, filling available positions would nonetheless be challenging for European employers. If the continent were able to recover only to pre-pandemic job numbers by 2030, employment rates would still have to increase by three percentage points in order to fill the likely jobs available. Even with a decline of 9.4 million jobs (about 4 percent respectively at an annual compound growth rate of 0.3 percent) from the pre-pandemic levels, employment rates would stay stable.

The shrinking labor pool is a key reason. Europe’s working-age population is expected to decrease by about 13.5 million, or 4 percent, by the decade’s end. The decline will be especially large in Germany (almost 8 percent, or about 4.0 million people), Italy (almost 7 percent, about 2.5 million people), and Poland (9 percent, about 2.3 million people). A shrinking workweek might add further pressure. Since 2000, the average hours worked each week per capita have decreased by more than one (or almost 3 percent), to 37.1 hours.

Automation is not the only force shaping the workplace. Europe’s mix of sectors is rebalancing as manufacturing and agriculture continue to recede while services gain more relative weight. Now automation is amplifying the shift toward more knowledge-intensive sectors, such as education, information and communications technology, and human health and social work.

Based on our modeling, three sectors are likely to account for more than 70 percent of Europe’s potential job growth through 2030. The strongest net gains are in human health and social work, where 4.5 million jobs could be added. This is followed by professional, scientific, and technical services, which could add 2.6 million jobs, and education, which could gain 2.0 million jobs.

(Video) New datatool on the Future of Work in Europe

The occupational mix is also changing due to automation. Many of the largest occupational categories in Europe today have the highest potential for displacement. These include office support roles and production jobs, which employ about 30 million and 25 million workers, respectively. Low-wage customer service and sales roles, such as cashiers and clerks, are also likely to decline as many tasks are automated. Just ten of the more than 400 occupations we examined—including shop sales assistants, administrative secretaries, and stock clerks—account for nearly 20 percent of likely displacements (Exhibit 5).

The future of work in Europe (5)

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Many of the growing occupations in our model require a higher level of skills. We estimate that STEM-related occupations and business and legal professional roles could grow by more than 20 percent in the coming decade. Creative and arts management roles could increase by more than 30 percent, although this is a small category, with just over five million workers. Just 15 occupations account for almost 30 percent of potential future net job growth in our model. They include such diverse occupations as software developers, nursing professionals, and marketing professionals.

Even within a given occupation, day-to-day work activities will change as machines take over some proportion of current tasks. Workers may need different skills as a result. Our model shows activities that require mainly physical and manual skills declining by 18 percent by 2030 across Europe, and those requiring basic cognitive skills declining by 28 percent. In contrast, activities that require technological skills will grow in all industries, creating even more demand for workers with STEM skills (increasing 39 percent), who are already in short supply. At the same time, we foresee 30 percent growth in demand for socioemotional skills. Human workers will increasingly concentrate in roles that require interaction, caregiving, teaching and training, and managing others—activities for which machines are not good substitutes.

In our analysis, education is significantly correlated with the likelihood of being displaced by automation. In the midpoint automation adoption scenario, people with only secondary education are three times as likely as people with more education to be in roles with high potential for automation.

Our findings suggest that automation and the occupational and skill shiftsthat accompany it would accelerate the concentration of potential net job growth, absent other changes. Unless COVID-19 causes changes in preferences of workers and companies for less dense communities, the same 48 megacities and superstar hubs that contributed 35 percent of the EU’s job growth in the past decade could capture more than 50 percent through 2030.

Our model suggests potential net growth rates of 15 percent in the two megacities and 9 percent for the superstar hubs in the midpoint automation scenario. Realizing this growth will require an influx of new workers and the right skills.

The clusters in the stable economies group could see modest job growth of less than 5 percent over the next decade. Our model shows them contributing about 40 percent of EU job growth through 2030—about ten percentage points below the share they produced between 2007 and 2018.

Within the shrinking regions category, few local labor markets are likely to see employment growth. Our analysis suggests that they will collectively account for less than 10 percent of expected EU job growth through 2030.

As a result of these trends, the share of Europeans living in regions where jobs are declining could double over the decade, to about 40 percent. One wild card in these estimates is the sudden shift to remote work that took place during the pandemic, as roughly one-third of the workforce began working from home. If this becomes a more permanent feature of working life, it could mean that some workers will not necessarily need to move to dynamic cities to take on the jobs being created there.

As automation adoption continues in the decade ahead, our scenarios suggest that almost all of today’s 235 million European workers will face at least some degree of change as their occupations evolve. Occupational and geographic mismatches are likely to emerge as a major challenge over the next decade (Exhibit 6).

(Video) The future of employment in Europe | Christopher Pissarides | TEDxBrussels

The future of work in Europe (6)

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Up to 21 million may have to leave declining occupations. We estimate that 94 million workers (about 40 percent of the 2018 workforce) may not need to switch occupations but will nevertheless have to acquire new skills because more than 20 percent of what they do today can be handled by technology.

In an analysis of online profiles we conducted with LinkedIn, we observe that workers typically move into new roles that are “adjacent” to their current ones (that is, they require overlapping or complementary skills). Individuals who enter growing occupations tend to move there from other growing occupations with very high skill adjacencies, whereas those in occupations that are declining because of automation tend to switch to other declining roles. For example, we found that 78 percent of people who moved into four highly sought-after occupations—software engineer, recruiter, talent acquisition specialist, and digital marketing specialist—came from other growing occupations. For four declining occupations we evaluated—food server, administrative assistant, salesperson, and accountant—we found that 57 percent of the observed transitions ended with individuals taking another job that is declining.

However, our research also identified several examples of promising pathways. Demand for shop sales assistants is declining. But with additional training, some of the 9.7 million workers in these roles pre-pandemic could draw on their overlapping experience in interacting with people to meet the growing demand for nurses or personal care assistants, for example.

Mobility could solve part of Europe’s job-matching challenge

The concentration of job growth heightens the importance of labor mobility. In megacities and superstar hubs, our estimates suggest that less than 60 percent of expected job growth can be filled by existing residents. Filling the remaining 2.5 million openings in these dynamic growth hubs will require millions more migrants (equivalent to 4.4 percent of the current population). Remote work—widely adopted during the pandemic—could account for at least some of these positions, alongside commuting and physical moves.

Filling low- to middle-skill occupations will be especially difficult in cities where the cost of living is highest. In Paris, for example, nursing associates (one of the fastest-growing occupations) have an average wage that is less than two-thirds of the average cost of living for a three-person household.

Each of the more than 1,000 local labor markets we analyzed will need to set its own priorities to address today’s issues and tomorrow’s eventualities. Here we highlight four issues common to many regions.

Europe needs to create more training and career pathways

Every country in Europe needs to ensure that its educational system is preparing students to succeed, with particular emphasis on the abilities required for in-demand jobs, such as STEM skills. Creating partnerships between educators and employers could help in the design of career-relevant curricula. Employers will be the natural providers of training opportunities for many, and policy makers can consider providing incentives to companies that invest in workforce development. But individuals who have to find new positions will need access to training programs outside their current workplace. Meeting the scale of this need will require mobilizing Europe’s existing educational system, networks of labor agencies, training infrastructure, and new digital technologies.

Access to jobs in dynamic growth hubs needs to be expanded

To fulfill their growth potential, Europe’s dynamic growth cities will need to keep attracting an influx of new workers at roughly the same rate as in the past. Investing in transit infrastructure around major metropolitan areas to expand what constitutes a viable commute is one way to increase mobility. Addressing the affordable housingshortage in these fast-growing urban areas would enable people who do want to move for better opportunities to do so. Geographic mobility alone may not solve this issue. If workers cannot move to the jobs, the jobs may need to move to them. With remote work on the rise, employers can also hire remote workers or turn to freelancers and outsourcing to expand their talent pool.

Shrinking labor markets need targeted economic development strategies

For policy makers, the prospect of even more polarized job, GDP, and population growth carries the risk of exacerbating social tensions and inequality. Many questions about industrial policy, skills development, urban development, and mobility will need to be debated, and some involve difficult trade-offs. Policy makers will need to decide whether and how to invest public money or attract private funds into areas in relative decline to revitalize their economies. EU programs such as Horizon 2020 and the Cohesion Policy can be sources of funding and collaboration. A common strategy pursued by local governments is providing economic incentives to entice companies to relocate. Subsidies may be part of the tool kit, but they need to respect competition policy, be backed by a rigorous business case, and advance a more holistic economic development plan. Regions that are losing workers may have to boost investment in local educational institutions or provide financial incentives to attract skilled outsiders.

Europe needs to keep raising labor-market participation

Once the economy recovers from the COVID-19 crisis, it may be necessary to raise labor participation to deal with the decreasing working-age population. To boost employment rates, national governments may have to consider broad labor-market and pension reforms. One logical place to start is getting more willing workers off the sidelines, focusing on demographic groups where there is room for growth, including workers over age 55 and women. The female labor force participation remains significantly below that of men, in part because women in Western Europe still do two-thirds of all unpaid care work. Employers can attract and retain women by offering more flexible schedules, part-time work, and remote-work options. Governments can also provide tax incentives for second earners in a family and ensure that public childcare and eldercare programs are widely available.

(Video) The Future of Work: ESCP Europe London Campus

Governments and companies need to focus on long-term labor market trends as they prepare for the post-pandemic era. With accelerated automation adoption, demographics could work in Europe’s favor. Helping individuals connect with new opportunities and prepare for the jobs of tomorrow will challenge every community across the continent.


Is Europe having worker shortages? ›

In 2019, according to Eurofound, 39% of European manufacturing companies reported that their production was limited by labor shortages. Those numbers are likely to be worse now, compounded by the effects of Covid and changing demographics.

What are the benefits of working in Europe? ›

European countries offer a chance for a better work-life balance with an average of four weeks of paid leave per year which does not include public holidays. The daily work hours are reasonable and allow for activities outside work.

What does the future of work mean? ›

Simply put, the future of work is a projection of how work, workers and the workplace will evolve in the years ahead. It's a topic that keeps many CEOs up at night as they make decisions that enable their organizations to thrive today while they prepare for the future.

Which country is best in Europe for work? ›

top 5 countries in Europe to study and work
  1. Germany. Germany has remained consistently at the top of many lists for the past three years, and rightly so. ...
  2. The Netherlands. ...
  3. Spain. ...
  4. Norway. ...
  5. Switzerland.
20 Apr 2022

What countries have a worker shortage? ›

Labour shortages have been widespread across countries, yet particularly in Australia, Canada and the United States; and across industries, yet particularly in contact-intensive ones like accommodation and food, but also manufacturing.

Where did Europeans face a shortage of labour? ›

More recently, the severity of these shortages exceeded its pre-crisis peak, especially in central and eastern European countries, but also in north-west European countries.

Why do you want to work in Europe answer? ›

Here is an example of how you could answer this question: “I am willing to move overseas for this job because I believe that it is a great opportunity to learn about new cultures and gain work experience in a different country.

Why do you want to work in Europe? ›

Top 5 reasons to work in Europe
  • No Chitchat. European business etiquette is all about getting things done. ...
  • Enjoy Your Commute to Work! Cycling is a main form of transportation in Europe. ...
  • Work Life Balance. ...
  • Time to Explore. ...
  • Standard of Living.

Why is it better to work abroad? ›

Not only will you enjoy a higher salary, but you'll also have access to things like free healthcare, education opportunities, better labour laws and overall an improved quality of life. If you are moving abroad with your family, these are major advantages to consider.

What is the future of work like? ›

The world of work is changing. Artificial intelligence and automation will make this shift as significant as the mechanization in prior generations of agriculture and manufacturing. While some jobs will be lost, and many others created, almost all will change.

What are the characteristics of the future of work? ›

These 5 Characteristics Will Define the Future of Work
  • Distributed. Humans are highly collaborative creatures. ...
  • Open. Gone are the days when most workers spend their entire careers at the same company. ...
  • Human. In the age of automation, the service economy has exploded. ...
  • Neighborly. ...
  • Caring.
18 Oct 2018

What are some future trends for work? ›

From flexible working hours to employee safety, here is a list of employment trends shaping the future of work.
  • Remote and hybrid work. ...
  • Virtual team building. ...
  • Employee wellness. ...
  • Flexible Working Hours. ...
  • Multi-functional workspaces. ...
  • Diversity and Inclusion. ...
  • Ongoing learning. ...
  • Worker safety.
25 Jul 2022

Which country in Europe pays highest salary? ›

Luxembourg had the highest average annual wage in Europe in 2021, at approximately 75 thousand U.S. dollars, compared with Slovakia, which had an average annual salary of just over 24.7 thousand U.S dollars a year, the lowest among the countries provided in this statistic.

Is moving to Europe a good idea? ›

Europe is an epicentre for expats, with 2.7 million foreigners moving to the EU only in 2019. There are several reasons internationals move to Europe, including better job opportunities, higher salaries, a higher standard of living, and better government support.

How can we solve labour shortage problems? ›

How can the shortage of labor be overcome?
  1. Recruiting: More Referrals = Better Employees.
  2. Optimize the Onboarding Experience.
  3. Make Training an Ongoing Process.
  4. Provide Context Around Why Policies and Processes Change.
  5. Better Scheduling for Better Lives.
  6. Build Better Teams Through Better Communication.
  7. Recognize and Reward.
22 Aug 2022

What career is there a shortage of? ›

A global talent shortage

It's means the global talent shortage has hit it highest level in 16 years. According to the survey, the most difficult roles to fill are in Education, Health, Social Work, Government, Information Technology, Telecoms, Communications and Media, Banking, Finance, Insurance and Real Estate.

What's really causing the labor shortage? ›

As immigration has slowed down in recent years due to changes in policies, it's contributing to the growing problem of labor shortages in the US. Immigration has declined from the Census Bureau's yearly projections of one million new immigrants a year to below 300,000 in 2021.

Why is there a Labour shortage UK? ›

It stated that the rise in vacancies in the UK was highest in jobs that relied most heavily on EU workers pre-pandemic, such as hospitality and warehouse and transport workers. This was a reflection of “persistently unfilled vacancies”, as outmigration reduces the number of workers available, it stated.

Is there a labor shortage in Spain? ›

Demographic Decline. With unemployment at its lowest since 2008, Spain -- like much of western Europe -- is struggling with the sort of severe labor shortages that led to travel chaos at European airports this summer.

Why is there a Labour shortage in Canada? ›

Boomers are exiting the workforce in droves, leaving more job vacancies than there are people to fill them. Canada is in the throes of a serious labour shortage, but economists say it's not all the pandemic's fault — it's the inevitable culmination of a seismic demographic shift decades in the making.

Why do you want to work here best answer? ›

Express your personal passion for the employer's product/service/mission. Employers want to know you're passionate about what they do, whether it takes the shape of a product, a service, a mission, or a brand. You can also connect your passion to the company's core values, which can often be found on their website.

Why should we hire you answer best? ›

Show that you have skills and experience to do the job and deliver great results. You never know what other candidates offer to the company. But you know you: emphasize your key skills, strengths, talents, work experience, and professional achievements that are fundamental to getting great things done on this position.

Why do you want to go abroad answer? ›

Career opportunities

In a globalised, well-connected world, employers increasingly value graduates with international experience and education. Studying abroad helps you to learn new languages, appreciate other cultures, overcome challenges of living in another country and gain a greater understanding of the world.

How do you find work in Europe? ›

Before you start applying for jobs in Europe, start by getting your resume in shape.
The best sites for finding a job in Europe include:
  1. LinkedIn.
  2. Monster Worldwide.
  3. Go Abroad.
  4. Eurojobs.
  5. CareerJet.
  6. Going Global.
30 Nov 2021

What do you know about workers in Europe? ›

There are over 158.9 million full-time workers in the European Union as of 2021, an increase when compared with 2020 when there were approximately 156.8 million full-time workers in the EU. At the time of the financial crash of 2008, full-time workers numbered around 158.7 million, but dropped to 147.9 million by 2013.

How can I go to Europe for job? ›

The standard requirements for a European employment visa are as following:
  1. Application Form. Fully completed and printed twice. ...
  2. Two identical photos. ...
  3. Valid passport. ...
  4. Roundtrip flight reservation. ...
  5. Travel medical insurance. ...
  6. Proof of Accommodation. ...
  7. Employment contract. ...
  8. Proof of Academic Qualifications.

How do you answer interview questions abroad? ›

Right answer: Sum up your key experiences, strengths, and broader interests in a few succinct sentences. Wrong answer: Don't segue into specific hobbies, mention weaknesses, or stutter. You're talking about yourself—a subject you should know well, so be clear and confident.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of working abroad? ›

The Pros and Cons of a Career Abroad
  • Pro: Experience the Global Marketplace. ...
  • Con: Interrupted Career Progression. ...
  • Pro: Cross-Cultural Communication. ...
  • Con: Office Politics in a Second Language. ...
  • Pro: Diversify Your Income. ...
  • Con: Hidden Costs of Living Abroad. ...
  • Pro: Experience Different Ways of Doing Business. ...
  • Con: Feeling Transient.

What are the challenges of working abroad? ›

The 12 Main Challenges of Working Abroad
  • Language. One of the most apparent problems you will encounter working abroad is any language barrier that may exist. ...
  • Culture. ...
  • Personal Life. ...
  • Business Practices. ...
  • Work-Life. ...
  • Obtaining a Visa or Work Permit. ...
  • Adjusting your Salary Expectations. ...
  • Networking and Relying on Word of Mouth.

How technology is changing the future of work? ›

Simultaneous Impacts from Technology. The technological advances of today are affecting the future of work in three key ways: by scaling and speeding up human capabilities, by substituting labor with machines, and by enabling new ways to access and supply labor. Scaling and speeding up human capability.

What jobs will change in the future? ›

7. 12 jobs that robots will replace in the future
  • Customer service executives. Customer service executives don't require a high level of social or emotional intelligence to perform. ...
  • Bookkeeping and data entry. ...
  • Receptionists. ...
  • Proofreading. ...
  • Manufacturing and pharmaceutical work. ...
  • Retail services. ...
  • Courier services. ...
  • Doctors.
5 Oct 2021

What is the world of work like? ›

The world of work is made up of things most of us recognize, like occupations, jobs, employers, employees, paychecks, promotions, etc. We often give these things different labels, like workers and organizations, for example. Although we all recognize these things, we each experience them differently.

What are the key drivers of the future of work? ›

There are four key elements that are driving this move to the modern workplace – an office of the future that is becoming increasingly device-centered.
  • Millennials. ...
  • Mobility. ...
  • Collaboration.

Why is communication important to the future of work? ›

Communication in the workplace is important because it boosts employee morale, engagement, productivity, and satisfaction. Communication is also key for better team collaboration and cooperation. Ultimately, effective workplace communication helps drive better results for individuals, teams, and organizations.

What are your suggestions for the future of work at the organization? ›

How to Prepare for the Future of Work
  • Embrace Digital Innovation. According to Mindedge, more than three-quarters of all workers employed at automated businesses say that new technology has made their jobs easier. ...
  • Create New Goals/Vision. ...
  • Train Your Workforce.
8 Jan 2021

What are the 5 trends changing the world of work? ›

The millennials, technologies, globalization, mobility, new attitudes… The employment scene is changing at an ever faster rate and it is vital to know and understand these changes.

How will work change in the next 10 years? ›

Companies will start to increase the functions of smart machines, software, apps and avatars. Employees will develop personal toolkits of virtual doppelgangers — virtual counterparts, with the help of artificial intelligence (AI) software and devices that are more accessible to their personal or team-based activities.

What skills will be needed for work in 2022? ›

  • Agility, Flexibility And Adaptability. Agility, flexibility and adaptability are three skills in demand. ...
  • Modern Communication. Modern communication is an essential skill. ...
  • Emotional Intelligence. ...
  • Creative Thinking. ...
  • Networking Skills. ...
  • Data Analysis. ...
  • Objective Self-Recognition. ...
  • Critical Thinking.
11 Aug 2022

Where is the best place to live and work in Europe? ›

Recognized as one of the cities with the best quality of life in Europe and one of the lowest crime rates, Vienna is a top destination for Americans wishing to settle in Europe. Vienna is a perfect choice for those looking for security, stability, affordability, culture, access to healthcare and international schools.

Which country is best for money? ›

Ten best countries to work in after-tax income
  • Singapore. ...
  • Japan. ...
  • The UAE. ...
  • Switzerland and the USA. ...
  • China and the Korea Republic. ...
  • Saudi Arabia. Just like in the UAE, there is no income tax in this country. ...
  • Turkey. National income tax rates in Turkey start at 15% and go up to 35%. ...
  • Canada.
16 Sept 2022

Which country has the most job opportunities? ›

Below are the top 10 countries with the most job opportunities:
  • China.
  • Hong Kong.
  • Turkey.
  • Australia.
  • Canada.
  • France.
  • USA.
  • Switzerland.
19 Apr 2022

Which is best European country to work? ›

Countries were ranked on a scale of one to ten considering the work conditions and employment rate. Iceland got the highest rate – 9.5; Switzerland – 9.4; Norway – 9.0; Holland, Luxembourg and Austria – 8.2; Germany – 8.1; Denmark – 8.

Which country is the cheapest to live in Europe? ›

Cheapest European countries for expats
  • Portugal. This country is famous for good food, beautiful beaches, a relaxed lifestyle, and affordable living. ...
  • Slovenia. This Central European country became an independent country in 1999. ...
  • Spain. ...
  • Croatia. ...
  • Bulgaria. ...
  • Italy.

What country is the easiest to move to? ›

Here are the 9 easiest countries that you can move to from the United States:
  • Svalbard.
  • Mexico.
  • Portugal.
  • Ecuador.
  • Malta.
  • Spain.
  • South Korea.
  • Australia.

Why people are moving to Europe? ›

More Americans are relocating to Europe, driven across the Atlantic by the rising cost of living, inflated house prices, a surging dollar and political rancor at home. Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece and France are among the most popular destinations.

Which country is best to live in future? ›

  • Singapore. #1 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • Japan. #2 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • United States. #3 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • China. #4 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • South Korea. #5 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • Germany. #6 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • Australia. #7 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • Canada.

What is the easiest country in Europe to get citizenship? ›

Portugal ticks many boxes as the easiest country to get citizenship of the EU. It's also one of the easiest European countries to immigrate to. Portugal has a fast five-year timeline to become eligible for citizenship and offers several excellent and flexible residency pathways (such as the Portugal D7 visa).

Which EU country has the best benefits? ›

France remains the country most committed to social benefits, with almost a third of French GDP spent on social services by the government in 2019. Scandinavian countries appear high up on the ranking, with Denmark, Sweden and Norway all spending more than 25%. The OECD average was 20%.

How can I work for the UN? ›

You can apply and become a staff member, a volunteer, or an intern. You can connect with us on social media and join the global conversation on the issues facing humanity. You can affiliate your NGO with the UN, or join the UN Global Compact, if you are in the private sector.

What are employee benefits defined as overall? ›

Employee benefits, also known as perks or fringe benefits, are provided to employees over and above salaries and wages. These employee benefit packages may include overtime, medical insurance, vacation, profit sharing and retirement benefits, to name just a few.

Which country is best to live in future? ›

  • Singapore. #1 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • Japan. #2 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • United States. #3 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • China. #4 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • South Korea. #5 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • Germany. #6 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • Australia. #7 in Forward Thinking Rankings. ...
  • Canada.

Which country work culture is best? ›

People in Italy have the best work-life balance, according to the OECD. Only 3 percent of employees in the country work more than 50 hours a week. Denmark, Norway, Spain and the Netherlands are also ranked highly. But the US comes in 29th because more than a tenth of people have long working hours.

Which is the best country to work in the world? ›

The Top Countries for Starting a Career
  • Canada. #1 in Start a Career Rankings. ...
  • Switzerland. #2 in Start a Career Rankings. ...
  • Germany. #3 in Start a Career Rankings. ...
  • Japan. #4 in Start a Career Rankings. ...
  • Netherlands. #5 in Start a Career Rankings. ...
  • United States. #6 in Start a Career Rankings. ...
  • Denmark. ...
  • United Kingdom.

Which European country has the best work-life balance? ›

Luxembourg ranks #1 on Remote's life-work balance index: it performs well across all key metrics, particularly regarding statutory maternity leave (100% of your wage for 20 weeks) and statutory annual leave (37 days). With a happiness score of 7.32, Luxembourg is also one of the most content nations in Europe.

Is work/life balance better in Europe? ›

OECD data shows more time off doesn't have to translate to lower productivity. On the contrary, some of the most productive countries, measured by GDP per hour worked, were in Europe. The United States ranks far lower. Workers here enjoy an average of 8.6 hours of leisure per day—which trumps their 7.4-hour workdays.

Which country has the best welfare system in the world? ›

Per capita
20 more rows

What 3 countries are not in the UN? ›

The United Nations (UN) is the largest intergovernmental organization in the world, with a current membership of 193 member states and two permanent non-member observer states (Palestine and Vatican City/Holy See).
Countries Not in the United Nations 2022.
Nation/StateLegal StatusContinent
Faroe Islands (Denmark)Self-governing territoryEurope
84 more rows

Is it hard to get a job at the UN? ›

It is generally hard to get a job at the UN. The main reasons UN jobs are difficult to get include language requirements, high competition, specific needs for skills and experience, high-level education, the often-complex UN recruitment process and that the UN wants to recruit a diversely as possible.

Do UN interns get paid? ›

In general, interns may be eligible to obtain a monthly stipend, provided that they are not sponsored by any other institutions. Nevertheless, interns are responsible for their own visa, travel, and accommodation arrangements.

What are the 4 major types of employee benefits? ›

There are four major types of employee benefits many employers offer: medical insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, and retirement plans. Below, we've loosely categorized these types of employee benefits and given a basic definition of each.

What benefits are most important to employees? ›

The most sought-after employee benefits are:
  • Remote work. While Covid has made remote work a necessity, there are benefits for employers and employees alike. ...
  • Healthcare. ...
  • Paid time off. ...
  • Flexible hours. ...
  • Paid family leave. ...
  • Four-day work week. ...
  • Free food in the office. ...
  • Student loan assistance.

What are 5 employee benefits? ›

Retirement benefits. Wellness benefits such as reimbursement for gym memberships or race registrations, weight loss programs, and smoking cessation. Educational incentives such as programs to help cover employees' college debt and tuition for postsecondary education in fields of study related to their current jobs.


1. Hope or Despair? The Future of Low-Paid Work in Europe and the US
(Cornell University)
2. Perspectives for the Future of the Audiovisual Industry in Europe
3. How did the great resignation disrupt the future of work? | ABC News
(ABC News)
4. Europe, Young talent and the future of work: employability in the face of technological disruption
5. The Future of Manufacturing in Europe
6. Will robots steal our jobs? - The future of work (1/2) | DW Documentary
(DW Documentary)
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