Economic Geography: Scope of Economic Geography (Useful Notes) (2022)

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Scope of Economic Geography!

What is economic geography? This basic question has been explained by several scholars in their own way and also has undergone changes with the change in nature of the study of economic geography. Until recently, it was concerned largely with spatial distribution of economic phenomena.

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In the early 1960s, for instance, the subject saw it as “an enquiry into the production, exchange, and consumption of goods by people in different areas of the world”.

Most of the geographers have defined the scope and method of economic geography in terms of three basic questions, as under:

(i) Where is the economic activity located?

(ii) What are the characteristics of the economic activity?

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(iii) To what other phenomena are the economic activity related?

(Video) Nature and Scope of Economic Geography l Economic Geography UPSC

To these three later studies have added two more:

(iv) Why is the economic activity located where it is?

(v) Would it not be better located elsewhere, to better satisfy certain economic and social criteria?

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And more recently an answer has been given that these are the result of economic behaviour. This changing nature and change in emphasis on content of study shows that economic geography has proved the importance in various periods of its growth. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss the nature and scope of economic geography both from traditional to modern point of view.

As early as in 1882, the German scholar, Gotz had defined economic geography as “a scientific investigation of the nature of world areas in their direct influence of goods”. Although, Gotz initiated the concept of economic geography but his influence was limited to Germany only.

The abstract principles of that time could not be related to economic geography because they were not in their developed form. Economic geography owes its growth as an academic discipline to the interest of the British people in commerce. It is interesting to note that George Chisholm, the father of modern economic geography, had wanted an intellectual interest to the study of geographical facts relating to commerce.

He thought that the primary use of economic geography is “to form some reasonable estimate of the future course of commercial development so far as that is governed by geographical conditions”. In his treatment of the subject, however, Chisholm emphasised commercial development, and considered the physical features and climate in relation to products mainly.

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This emphasis on physical features and climate in relation to products led others subsequently to think of economic geography in terms of productive occupations. Jones and Darkenwald (1950) state that, “Economic geography deals with productive occupations and attempts to explain why certain regions are outstanding in the production and exportation of various articles and why others are significant in the importation and utilisation of the things.”

(Video) Nature & Scope of Economic Geography Part 1

On the other hand, Ellsworth Huntington (1940), however, considers that all sorts of materials, resources, activities, customs, capabilities and types of ability that play a part in the work getting a living are the subject matter of economic geography.

Bengston and Van-Royen (1957), in his book Fundamentals of Economic Geography, have stated that:

Economic geography investigates the diversity in basic resources of the different parts of the world. It tries to evaluate the effects that differences of physical environment have upon the utilisation of these resources.

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It studies differences in economic development in different regions or countries of the world. It studies transportation, trade routes and trade resulting from this different development and as affected by the physical environment.

Some of the other definitions of economic geography are as follows: “Economic geography is the study of influence exerted on the economic activities of man by his physical environment and more specially by the form and structure of the surface of land, the climatic conditions which prevail upon it, and the place relations in which its different regions stand to one another.”

—J. McFarlane

“Economic geography has to do with similarities and differences from place to place in the ways people make a living.”

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—R.E. Murphy

(Video) #Nature and scope of Economic Geography#

“Economic geography is that aspect of the subject which deals with the influence of the environment – inorganic and organic – on the activities of man.”

—R.N. Brown

“Economic geography is concerned with problem of making a living, with world industries, with basic resources and industrial commodities.”

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—E.B. Shaw

“Economic geography is concerned with the distribution of man’s productive activities over the surface of the earth.”

—N.J.G. Pounds

It thus becomes clear from above definitions that economic geography mainly deals with the man’s productive activities and their relationship with environmental conditions. These activities are of three types: primary, secondary and tertiary, the primary activities are those which obtain simple commodities or raw materials from the soil, the sea and the rocks. They are agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining.

These goods are then manufactured, processed or fabricated in factories and workshops; this constitutes the secondary group of activities. After manufacturing, transport services as well as services of insurance, brokers, dealers, etc., are required. These services constitute tertiary activities. All these human activities are in some way or other linked with environmental conditions.

Wheeler, Muller, Thrall and Fik, in their book Economic Geography (1998), explain economic geography by considering two continua: a human — physical continuum and a topical — regional continuum. Accordingly, economic geography, emphasising human production, distribution and consumption activ­ities, naturally falls toward the human end of the scale. In which climate, terrain, soil, and hydrology will play a critical role at some level of analysis.

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(Video) Scope of Economic Geography

The second continuum represents an approach to the analysis of spatial variation in human and physical elements, in other words study of the economic geography of a region, a second region, a third region and so on, until all the world is covered. It also deals with the principles involved in the distribution of various kinds of economic activities.

A major change has occurred in the nature of economic geography with the inclusion of the theme, ‘spatial variation’ or ‘areal variation’. Alexander and Gibson (1979) and Hartshorn and Alexander (1988) in their book Economic Geography have stated that “economic geography is the study of areal variation on the earth’s surface in man’s activities related to producing, exchanging and consuming wealth”.

In pursuit of that goal the economic geographer asks three basic questions:

(i) Where is the economic activity located?

(ii) What are the characteristics of the economic activity?

(iii) To what other phenomena are the economic activity related?

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According to Loyod and Dicken (1972), “As a behavioural science with spatial dimension of economic system, economic geography is concerned with the construction of general principles and theories that explain the operation of the economic system.”

A major change in the study of economic geography has been in the form of behavioural approach and systems analysis. Behaviour denotes the actions of individuals or groups, it follows that economic phenomena in some way reflects individual and group values, policies and decisions.

While system is a set of identified elements so related together that they form a complex whole. Systems analysis means considerations of such a whole as a whole, rather than as something to be analysed into separate parts.

(Video) Nature and scope of economic geography

Economic geographers utilise the system concept in order to better understand the component elements of some part of reality, and the relations between them. In fact, economic geography now has grown as a developed branch of geography with specialised branches having their own status and importance.

FAQs

What is the scope of economic geography? ›

Therefore, the scope of economic geography has been increasing. In this regard, the transport, communication, marketing, management and planning, growth and development of a region, etc. are considered as part and partial of the subject matter of economic geography.

What is economic geography PDF? ›

Economic geography is the study of spatial economics – that is, where economic activity takes place and why it takes place there. It injects another dimension into economic analysis by acknowledging that location is important.

What is scope of economic geography class 10? ›

Economic geography is the branch of geography which studies human activities related to production, distribution, consumption and exchange of resources with respect to spatial and temporal aspects . None of these economic activities of man can take place without resources .

What is the scope of geography notes? ›

Scope of geography

It is concerned with the study of the size, shape and movement of the earth and other heavenly bodies, landmass, bodies of water, climate, vegetation and events in different places of the world. It also deals with the spatial distribution of animal and natural resources as well as human activities.

What are the 5 scopes of geography? ›

Geography has five basic themes namely location, place, human-environment interaction, movement, and region.

What are the main scope of economics? ›

Inflation, unemployment, monopoly, economic growth, pollution, free markets versus central planning, poverty, productivity and other current issues are all covered in the study of economics.

Who is the father of economic geography? ›

Through these contributions to trade theory and economic geography, Krugman is often credited as being one of the pioneering researchers in the New Trade Theory and the founding father of the New Economic Geography.

What is economic geography and its types? ›

Economic geography is the subfield of human geography which studies economic activity and factors affecting them. It can also be considered a subfield or method in economics. There are four branches of economic geography. There is, primary sector, Secondary sector, Tertiary sector, & Quaternary sector.

What is the importance of economic geography? ›

Economic geography is important in developed nations such as the United States because it allows researchers to understand the structure of the area's economy and its economic relationship with other areas around the world.

What is economic and its scope? ›

Economics is defined as the social science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Evolved in the 19th century, the economic studies have become one of the most significant studies of modern days.

What is economics explain its scope and importance? ›

“ Economics is the study of how people and society end up choosing, with or without the use of money, to employ scarce productive resources that could have alternative uses, to various commodities and distribute them for consumption new or in future among various persons and groups in society.

What is nature and scope? ›

Project Scope means the description or activity of work to be accomplished on the project. Natural background means the condition of waters in the absence of man-induced alterations based on the best scientific information available to the Department.

What is nature and scope in geography? ›

The nature of geography is not static but highly dynamic. The nature of geography is both physical environment and human environment. However, the meaning and scope of Geography has dramatically changed with the passage of time, thus, is concerned with the study of Nature and Human interactions as an integrated whole.

What is geographical scope mean? ›

Geographic Scope means the area covered by a model or analysis used to calculate physical changes resulting from a proposed project.

What are the three scopes of geography? ›

Population Geography. Economic Geography. Philosophy of Geo-Science.

What is economic geography? ›

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY. Economic Geography is the study of how people earn their living, how livelihood systems vary by area and how economic activities are spatially interrelated and linked. FACTORS THAT CONTROL DISTRIBUTION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES.

How many scopes are there in geography? ›

Popular careers in Geography includes academics (teacher/lecturer/professor), Researcher in organisations, Cartographers, Environmental Consultant, Urban Planner, Tourism Officer, GIS Specialist, Demographer, Hydrologist etc. The salary would differ from job to job and from country to country.

What are the 2 scopes of economics? ›

There are two main economic fields:

Microeconomics: studies the behavior of individual economic units and the functioning of markets. ➢ Macroeconomics: studies the functioning of economics as an aggregate (production, employment, inflation…)

What are the four steps of the scope of economics? ›

Key Takeaways

Four key economic concepts—scarcity, supply and demand, costs and benefits, and incentives—can help explain many decisions that humans make.

What is economies of scope PDF? ›

Economies of scope exist when the cost of joint production of two outputs is less than the cost of producing the components separately.

What are the 4 types of economic activity? ›

The four essential economic activities are resource management, the production of goods and services, the distribution of goods and services, and the consumption of goods and services.

What are 5 economic activities? ›

Sectors of Economy: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary and Quinary.

Who defined economic geography? ›

MacFarlane describes Economic Geography as the study of “influence exerted on the economic activity of man by his physical environment, and more specifically by the form and structure of the surface of the land, the climatic conditions which prevail upon it and the spatial relations in which its different regions stand ...

What are the 3 economic types? ›

There are three main types of economic systems: command, market, and mixed. We will briefly describe each of these three types.

What are the 6 types of economics? ›

The different kinds of economic systems are Market Economy, Planned Economy, Centrally Planned Economy, Socialist, and Communist Economies. All these are characterized by the ownership of the economics resources and the allocation of the same.

What are the types of economics? ›

The two branches of economics are microeconomics and macroeconomics.

What is an example of economic geography? ›

Economic geography has a long pedigree. Its traditional focus has been the distribution of various productive activities—with subdivisions into, for example, the geography of agriculture, industrial geography, and the geography of services—and patterns of trade such as transport geography.

What are the methods of economic geography? ›

In economic geography, three approaches have been developed during last three decades that can be considered as modern approaches. These are: (i) System analysis, (ii) Behavioural approach, and (iii) Institutional approach.

What is the importance of geography? ›

Why study geography? Geography helps us to explore and understand space and place - recognising the great differences in cultures, political systems, economies, landscapes and environments across the world, and exploring the links between them.

What is the scope of economic growth? ›

Generally, economic growth is defined as the expansion in a nation's real output. Some economists however, prefer to define economic growth as the expansion in a nation's capability to produce the goods and services its people want.

What is the scope and limitations of economics? ›

Microeconomics: The part of economics whose subject matter of study is individual units, i.e. a consumer, a household, a firm, an industry, etc. It analyses the way in which the decisions are taken by the economic agents, concerning the allocation of the resources that are limited in nature.

What are 5 reasons it's important to study economics? ›

Top 5 reasons to study economics
  • Economics is everywhere. Economics is a part of everyday life, and it's also the gateway to the future. ...
  • Make an impact. Economics allows you to drive positive change. ...
  • Gain an international perspective. ...
  • Develop transferable skills. ...
  • Boost your career prospects.
17 Dec 2021

What is called nature? ›

uncountable noun. Nature is all the animals, plants, and other things in the world that are not made by people, and all the events and processes that are not caused by people. The most amazing thing about nature is its infinite variety.

What are the 7 major scope of marketing? ›

The 7 functions of marketing are promotion, selling, product/service management, marketing information management, pricing, financing and distribution. Understanding the core functions of marketing can help you better focus your efforts and strategies to support your business.

What is nature and its types? ›

"Nature" refers to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. It ranges in scale from the subatomic to the cosmic. The term "nature" may refer to living plants and animals, geological processes, weather, and physics, such as matter and energy.

Who defined scope of geography? ›

Eratosthenes is credited as being the first person to use the term geography, which literally translates as "writing about the Earth." The word can be broken down into two parts: geography and graphy, respectively.

What are the types of geography? ›

There are three main strands of geography:
  • Physical geography: nature and the effects it has on people and/or the environment.
  • Human geography: concerned with people.
  • Environmental geography: how people can harm or protect the environment.

What is concept of scope? ›

Scope refers to the combined objectives and requirements needed to complete a project. The term is often used in project management as well as in consulting. Properly defining the scope of a project allows managers to estimate costs and the time required to finish the project.

What is the scope of study? ›

The scope of the study explains the extent to which your research area will be explored, and the parameters the study will operate. It gives the reader and the writer an insight into what the study is aimed at and what should be anticipated.

What is period scope? ›

Business Scope Period means the period commencing on the date of this Agreement and terminating upon the earlier of (i) the first date following the first occurrence of any Issuance on which the Seller and its Subsidiaries do not collectively own at least fifty percent (50%) of the aggregate Ownership Interests in the ...

What is economic geography? ›

Economic Geography is the study of how people earn their living, how livelihood systems vary by area and how economic activities are spatially interrelated and linked. FACTORS THAT CONTROL DISTRIBUTION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES.

Who defined economic geography? ›

MacFarlane describes Economic Geography as the study of “influence exerted on the economic activity of man by his physical environment, and more specifically by the form and structure of the surface of the land, the climatic conditions which prevail upon it and the spatial relations in which its different regions stand ...

What is economic geography What is its main subject? ›

Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the Earth. The subject matter investigated is strongly influenced by the researcher's methodological approach.

What is economics definition in PDF? ›

science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have. alternative uses. This means that economics is a human science. It involves maximizing satisfaction. from scarce resource and the means available for satisfying these ends (wants) are scarce or limited in.

What are 4 types of economic activities? ›

The four essential economic activities are resource management, the production of goods and services, the distribution of goods and services, and the consumption of goods and services.

What are 5 economic activities? ›

Sectors of Economy: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary and Quinary.

What are the 3 types of economic activities? ›

The type of economic activities- Primary, Secondary and Tertiary.

What is an example of economic geography? ›

Economic geography has a long pedigree. Its traditional focus has been the distribution of various productive activities—with subdivisions into, for example, the geography of agriculture, industrial geography, and the geography of services—and patterns of trade such as transport geography.

What is economic and its scope? ›

Economics is defined as the social science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Evolved in the 19th century, the economic studies have become one of the most significant studies of modern days.

What are different types of economics? ›

The two branches of economics are microeconomics and macroeconomics.

What are 10 definition of economics? ›

Economics is the "study of how societies use scarce resources to produce valuable commodities and distribute them among different people." ( Paul A. Samuelson 1948) 10. economics includes the study of labor, land, and investments, of money, income, and production, and of taxes and government expenditures.

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